Lime, large leaved

[[Category:Deciduous Trees]]
[[Category:Malvaceae]]
[[Category:Tilia]]
[[Category:Pictures needed]]

[[File:example.jpg|right|200px|caption]]

”’Scientific Name”’: ”Tilia platyphyllos”

”’Family”’: Malvaceae

”’Also known as”’: Largeleaf linden, bigleaf linden

”’Habitat”’: Woods on good calcareous or base rich soils. Europe, from Britain and Belgium south and east to Spain, Crimea, Caucasus and W. Asia.

”’Description”’: ”Tilia platyphyllos” is a narrowly domed tree with a moderate growth rate, and can eventually attain a height of 40 m. Unlike small-leaved lime, large-leaved lime does not produce suckers from the base of the trunk.

”’Identifying Features”’:
* ”’Bark”’ – Dark grey bark with fine fissures and furrows. Developing flaky plates with age.
* ”’Twigs”’ – The twigs are reddish-green and slightly pubescent.
* ”’Buds”’ – Red buds are larger than 4mm and have only 2-3 scales.
* ”’Leaves”’ – The foliage consists of simple, alternately arranged leaves. As indicated by its common name, this tree has larger leaves than the related Tilia cordata (small-leaved linden), 6 to 9 cm (exceptionally 15 cm). They are ovate to cordate, mid to dark green above and below, with white downy hair on the underside, particularly along the veins, tapering into a mucronate tip. The margin is sharply serrate, and the base cordate; the venation is palmate along a midrib. The pubescent petiole is usually 3–4 cm long, but can vary between 1.5–5 cm. The autumn foliage is yellow-green to yellow.
* ”’Flowers”’ – The small, fragrant, yellowish-white flowers are arranged in drooping, cymose clusters in groups of 3 to 4. Their whitish-green, leaf-like bracts have an oblong-obovate shape. The geniculate peduncles are between 1.5–3 cm long. The hermaphroditic flowers have 5 sepals and 5 tepals, numerous stamens, but no staminodes. The superior ovary is 2–10 locular with one smooth style. The flowers are pollinated by bees.
* ”’Fruit”’ – The fruit is a small, round, tomentose, cream-colored nutlet with a diameter of 1 cm or less. It has a woody shell with 3–5 ridges.

==Pictures throughout the year==

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==Uses==
===Food===
Young leaves – raw. A delicious addition to salads and sandwiches, the young leaves are mild and tender with a somewhat mucilaginous texture. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose. A popular herb tea is made from the flowers, it has a sweet, fragrant pleasant flavour. Some caution is advised, see notes on toxicity. Sap – harvested in the spring, it is sweet and can be used as a drink or concentrated into a syrup.
Freshly made tea, mixed 1:1 with spiced rum makes a lovely drink and keeps indefinitely.

===Medicine===
Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places. It is also quite an effective vasodilator.

===Other===
A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc. It is also suitable for cloth. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 – 30cm in diameter. The fibre can also be used for making paper. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige.
Wood – soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing and has medicinal properties.

==Gav Notes==
===Known hazards===
If the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication.

===Harvesting===
Leaves in early spring, flowers slightly later.

===Potential lookalikes===
[[Lime, common]] (Tilia x europaea) and [[Lime, small leaved]] (Tilia cordata).

”’Sources”’:
*Tree & Plant ID Course from Foundation Bushcraft – http://identificationmasterclass.com/
*Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilia_platyphyllos
*Woodland Trust – https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/visiting-woods/trees-woods-and-wildlife/british-trees/native-trees/large-leaved-lime/
*PFAF – https://pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?latinname=Tilia+platyphyllos

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